Sustainable Pets?

We have two house cats and one dog. Some of you may have already met Magpie our dog, but the cats have yet to make an appearance – mainly because they have never been to the farm.

Magpie likes rocks, climbing, digging, swimming, hunting, barking and jumping

Magpie likes rocks, climbing, digging, swimming, hunting, barking and jumping


Siena is the sun worshipper

Siena is the sun worshipper


Harlie prefers the shade

Harlie prefers the shade

Both are about 7 years old now and extremely spoiled. I adopted them from a rescue shelter when they were kittens. Although the cats are my “babies” and I could go on and on about how cute and funny they are, that is not really the subject of this post.

As we hone our sustainability skills and think about the things we regularly purchase now that we may not be able to afford later when we are full-time farmers or that don’t really play into the new “closed-loop” lifestyle we are moving towards, purchased pet food was high on the list. I’ve always fed all of my pets high-end food which is, of course, expensive, making it a good candidate for reassessment.

We discussed the “by-products” of the planned pig and poultry operations and M said we could feed the pets from that. An occasional deer would help too.  At first I balked. I thought it was probably fine for the dog, but the cats??? I just couldn’t see it going over very well. In the spirit of being efficient and thrifty I agreed to try and keep an open mind but between you and me – I was skeptical.

Around this same time we were starting to research growing all of our own grains and vegetables to feed our future livestock. I currently purchase locally grown organic feed for our small flock of backyard chickens at home. I sell our surplus eggs to a few friends and always go on and on about how well my girls are treated and fed – only whole grains, kitchen scraps and lots of delicious forages are provided – no nasty chemical/gmo-laden over-processed food goes into those eggs. No siree!

That’s when it hit me. All of these years thinking I was feeding my pets the very best food to suddenly realize I had been feeding them really expensive over-processed crap! I started to read up on it. I never thought about it before but when I read that the pet food industry was born from a need to do something with the waste products from the human food industry, I knew things had to change sooner rather than later.

It turns out the worst thing you can feed your pets is dry food – especially cats.  The ancestral diet of muscle, bone and organs was 70% water whereas dry, processed food contains at most 10%. I also read that cats mouths are not designed for drinking water efficiently. In the wild they derive most of their water needs from their prey.

As with anything – the internet is full of info on the raw food diet. I started out with feeding raw meaty bones (NEVER feed an animal cooked bones). Magpie loved the new diet and happily crunched meaty bones at every meal. The cats – well, Harlie would have nothing to do with it. She would just look at me as if saying “Seriously? You’ve GOT to be kidding yourself if you think I’m going to consider THAT THING my dinner”. Siena was totally into it but she wanted to drag her raw chicken wing off to a more private place. More often than not that private place would be my closet or my bathroom. It was pretty easy to get Magpie to stay on a mat at her feed bowl, but the cats – well they just don’t operate that way.

I started chopping the meaty bones into smaller bits with a meat cleaver for the cats. That was a complete pain to do twice a day, plus chickens bits were flying all over the kitchen. There’s also the issue of me being prone to accidents around sharp objects (and I have the scars to prove it!). Magpie was pretty easy because I just had to toss her a few bone-in meaty parts. The hard part was remembering to take it out of the freezer before I went to bed and that didn’t always happen. Needless to say meal times were taking up a lot of time.

I continued my research and checked out a few books from the library. One of them hit the sweet spot for me – Dr. Becker’s Real Food For Healthy Dogs & Cats. It is easy to understand, the recipes aren’t too complicated and it deals with both cats and dogs. I ended up buying my own copy.  Dr. Becker’s recipes call for grinding the meat and bone. You can also purchase bone meal to add to ground meat if grinding bones doesn’t work for you but we happen to have a pretty decent meat grinder that can handle it. This sounded like an easier way to manage feeding the cats and the dog without a lot of fuss two times a day.

The dog diet is 75% meat, organs and bone with 25% veggies and fruit. For cats it is 88% meat, organs and bone with 12% veggies. I make large quantities  of the raw meat mix and the raw veg mix every couple of weeks or so. I can use the same recipes for both the dog and the cats – I just vary the percentage of meat mix to veg mix when I serve their meals. I freeze the meat and veg mixes in quart-sized containers to make varying the percentages easier and just add things like raw eggs or sardines (to provide them with omega-3 fatty acids) at meal time. I also occasionally add cottage cheese or yogurt and I sprinkle nutritional yeast over the top every other day.

The meat mix includes meaty bone-in parts from various animal as well as kidneys, hearts, gizzards, liver, etc… and I make a vegetable puree with raw vegetables (except for sweet potatoes and squash – I steam those first to make them more digestible) and fruit. The book has a lot of detail about the amounts, types, substitutions, etc… – it is crucial to provide a balanced diet. Just tossing them chicken backs or feeding plain ground meat is not the idea here. You are trying to recreate all of the nutrients they would obtain from a natural prey diet. Adding the fruit and veg provides them with nutrients they would have derived from eating the stomach contents of their prey.

Apple Ball – one of Magpie’s favorite games! She thinks it’s super duper when you can play with your food.

There are lots of recipes for both the meat and veg mixes to mix things up which helps while I still have to shop for organic meaty bits and vegetables. Luckily my local grocer sells organic organ meats, plus we always get the extra offal from our pastured pork provider’s other customers that don’t partake of the “nasty bits”. The last time we took home three hog heads, which in addition to providing us with six delightfully delicious pork cheeks, M yielded at least 16 lbs of extra meat for the dog and cats. Magpie spent several days gnawing at what was left of one of the heads. I composted the other two because I couldn’t bear to stumble upon a bloody hog skull in the yard any longer.

magpies hogshead

It took Harlie a couple of weeks to switch over to the new diet but I just mixed in her normal canned food and just tapered it off over time. Now she wolfs down her raw food with glee. Magpie & Siena both liked it from the start. In addition to the animals liking it and me having found an easier way to manage it, there have been several other even more important benefits to feeding them a raw diet.

Both Harlie and Siena were a little plump despite my efforts to cut back their serving sizes on the store-bought food and purchasing lower fat versions. Harlie also threw up a lot (not counting hairballs). The vet said some cats just have sensitive stomachs – it was nothing to worry about. They were both a bit lazy too – I figured it was because they were house cats and their age. In less than a month of eating the raw food diet both cats dropped down to a healthier weight and had way more energy. They became playful again and much more social. There is lots of running through the halls and new found interest in their toys. Unfortunately there is also a keen interest in anything we eat. I’m not sure if that is attributable to their taste buds “waking up” from the new diet or if they’ve been closely observing the dog getting leftovers after our meal times.

When I first started feeding Magpie raw meaty bones the plaque that had started to build up on her teeth was completely gone in a week – she had the whitest teeth imaginable. When I switched over to the ground meat and bones recipes I noticed her teeth starting to color up again, so now I give her meaty bones (chicken or turkey drumsticks or backs, lamb necks, etc… every other day to keep her smile brilliant – and Magpie does have a brilliant smile!

Posted in Dog, Homesteading, Sustainability | Tagged , , , | 8 Comments

Son of a Ditch

No sooner than the 600 ft long trench to the well is filled in we now find ourselves with an 845 ft ditch to bring power to the barn and building site.   


Off grid is not cheap or green

This follows long discussions about our power consumption and pure speculation on what it might be at peak usage when the farm is fully operational. 

We could easily rationalize 9,000 to 10,000 dollars in solar panels and micro-hydro but the batteries are another thing altogether. 

More expensive than the rest of the system, huge and space consuming, heavy, and another thing to maintain, these guys just aren’t reasonable for the flexibility we want. Worse they are a 10-15 year consumable if you are constantly vigilant on use and maintenance schedules. 

“The lead battery industry consumes more than 80% of global lead production and is responsible for exposing thousands of workers and millions of children to harmful levels of lead. It is also the fastest growing lead-consuming industry due to a convergence of rapidly increasing demand for vehicles, cell phones, back-up power supplies, and renewable energy systems.” – The Life Cycle of Metals: Improving Health, Environment and Human Security

Even the best system requires a standby generator – another single purpose purchase and maintenance requirement.

For less anxiety and to remove another (car-sized) bill from our future we plan on being grid-tied for now. We will be providing local power for our neighbors, and the power company will pay us for the privilege. 

A Ditch By Any Other Name

A long open hole, a terrible mess, the cost of progress looks like destruction to me. I will be glad when all this digging is done and what we do with the land grows things besides piles of torn earth. 

that is the pull tape provided by the power company

This ditch would have taken me two or three weekends to dig, and one tricky part might have been impossible. We paid our dear friends Joe and Sandy to tackle this, and he was done in a day and a half. There was also a “while you are at it request” a few trees left on the building site hadn’t fared well. Roots and all he pushed them over. I’ll save limbing and bucking logs for another day.


The conduit was laid in 10 foot pieces – dropping the pull line through as I went. I started early to get some done before the heat fired up. It was 99 degrees Fahrenheit when I finished. 


enough conduit to get to the transformer


The job was finished by 4:00, I could have moved faster but the line in the conduit added steps and I wanted to get this done right. After a quick solar shower and locking everything up I hopped on my motorcycle and headed out.

“Son of a Ditch!”, I muttered.

… But I pronounced it differently. 

As I was unlocking the gate I noticed the spool of pull tape provided by the power company was completely empty. The line I had been carefully threading through conduit hadn’t been long enough. 

Like every other project here this one is not going smoothly. I stewed on this and tried to come up with solutions on the long ride home. Currently I am considering a ping pong ball on heavy fishing line with a shop vac on one end of the conduit. 

Posted in Uncategorized | 5 Comments

James Bond’s Lessons in Fertilizer 

How can a bit of dated detective fiction aid a farmer? In Dr. No printed in 1958 Ian Fleming gives a brief history of the trade in fertilizer. Beginning in the guano trade in 1850 and ending with the advent of petro chemical fertilizers.


“Now then, guano.’ Pleydell-Smith tilted his chair back. Bond prepared to be bored. ‘As you know, it’s bird dung. Comes from the rear end of two birds, the masked booby and the guanay. So far as Crab Key is concerned, it’s only the guanay, otherwise known as the green cormorant, same bird as you find in England. The guanay is a machine for converting fish into guano. They mostly eat anchovies. Just to show you how much fish they eat, they’ve found up to seventy anchovies inside one bird! “Pleydell-Smith took out his pipe and pointed it impressively at Bond. ‘The whole population of Peru eats four thousand tons of fish a year. The sea birds of the country eat five hundred thousand tons!

Bond pursed his lips to show he was impressed. ‘Really.” 

“Then, around 1850 someone discovered it was the greatest natural fertilizer in the world – stuffed with nitrates and phosphates and what have you. And the ships and the men came to the guaneras and simply ravaged them for twenty years or more.”

…“but the whole industry went bust, with Crab Key and the other poor-quality deposits in the van, when the Germans invented artificial chemical manure.”

…“Then people found that there were snags about the German stuff, it impoverishes the soil,”…

Excerpt From: Fleming, Ian. “James Bond Collection I.” iBooks. 

Fast forward to today and we know that even though chemical fertilizers have been “fine tuned” it still kills soil biology and our national topsoils have been thinned and sterilized in part by their use.

Geoff Lawton, permaculture instructor, points out that every little hill and fence post becomes a perch for birds. In several videos, he even refers to a bird’s instinct to lighten the load as a “creative event”.  He blows a juicy raspberry then says, “Another creative event”, as birds alight, drop a load, then fly off again and again.


A stake on our silt pond


A stake on one of our empress trees

Like most land that has been hayed and endured our nutrient leaching deluges ours could use a little extra help. Fields are especially vulnerable and without grazing animals (yet) to add their creative events we mow and slowly build up organic material in place.  

But there are lots of birds and bats. So while hiking back up the main field with tools to work on our water lines I hammered in a handful of stakes in places I want birds to perch. 

This got me thinking about designing a simple and easy to set perch where birds would be compelled to rest on a horizontal bit allowing their guano to hit the grass more easily. I’ll also start making some bat houses this fall.

For now some stakes in the field and some cardboard under our barn swallows nest collect the goodness. The cardboard goes into our compost or directly in beds as part of our mulching system.

Converting bugs into fertility and enjoying the acrobatics and song makes this a creative event for all of us at the farm.

Posted in Farming, Gardening, Permaculture | Tagged , , | 3 Comments

It Will Only Take An Hour

We decided it was high time to focus on getting some sort of shelving in the barn as things were starting to pile up and we are hoping to begin construction on our farm prep area soon. Our permit was filed a few weeks ago, but before the county will issue the permit we need to get our septic design and an application for a well site inspection filed.

We’ve been discussing shelving for the past year but never settled on any details. Pallet rack shelving comes in so many sizes, it always seemed overwhelming to me to get a handle on it so it kept getting putting off. With the pending construction project and wanting to get our house in order to go on the market, I finally made it a priority.

Some of the shelving is to be used for boxes of stuff from the house – our basement is so full we can barely get through it. With storage space in the barn I can start to go through the basement and sort out what we will use later at the farm from what we need to get rid of. It will be a whole lot easier to sell the house without the basement looking like hoarders live there.

The plan for the weekend was to pick up shelving, file permits, clear out the stuff in the barn – moving things like leftover metal siding over to the “Area of Accumulation”  (a place we set up to store miscellaneous building materials, water totes, fencing, etc… that can be stored outdoors), assemble the shelving and then I could start mowing the fields while M finished up plumbing the livestock watering lines. Time permitting we could also finish backfilling the trenches we dug out last fall for the well.

I pointed out to M that our “To Do” list seemed a little ambitious. “Oh, well the clearing of the barn and the shelving will ‘only take an hour’…” Famous last words. And, as it turned out, the theme for the weekend.

I left the house early Friday morning to pick up the used pallet rack shelving I found on craigslist and then head down to the Building Department. M rode his motorcycle into work and would join me later that evening at the farm.

It took me an hour and a half to drive to the place to pick up the shelving. I spent two hours with the very nice gentleman selling the shelving – he wanted to make sure I knew how it all went together, and of course once you see it all up close and personal – well, we did a little reconfiguring and then of course it took a bit of time to load it all and strap it down.

From there I had to drive another hour and a half to the building department in the county where the farm is located, but it was 1230 pm and I was starving. I made a quick stop to walk the dog and grab a bite so it was almost 230 before I got to the building department. A bit of a kerfuffle over no record of our septic perc test holes having been dug and approved last fall. Thank goodness there was an inspector there that knew our designer and said it was ok for me to file because we were also told at the time we could go ahead and fill the test holes back in. Two hours later…

Another quick stop to drop eggs off to my good friend Sandy, meet her new puppy – ok so it wasn’t exactly a quick stop because who can resist playing with a PUPPY???

Well, by the time I got out to the farm it was after 530 and I was fried – it had been a long day and a bit stressful. I originally thought I’d get there by 200 pm at the latest and could get at least 4-5 hours of mowing in. Hah!

So I set up “camp”, popped a hard cider and Magpie and I went on a walkabout. OK – I did drag a bunch of 5′ bamboo stakes and a can of orange marker paint with me so I could mark where we planted Pacific willows because the grass was getting pretty high and the orange flags were no longer visible and the plan was to start mowing this weekend.

Before it “takes an hour” to read the rest of this post – it took all day Saturday and part of Sunday to clear out the barn and get the shelving up.

The picture above just shows the east end of the barn. The interior of the barn is 36′ wide and 60′ long. This is where the shelving will go temporarily. It will move further in after our farm prep area is built out which is located on the west end of the barn. This area will eventually become M’s woodworking shop.

Then there was the hummingbird rescue operation. Note the ridge cap in the picture above and the long extension ladder – a hummingbird flew in through the door and was trying to get out through the clear ridge cap. M put up the extension ladder and very carefully climbed up. After a bit of flitting back and forth out of his reach, he was finally able to catch it and very carefully, with one hand, descended down the ladder.

The barn was finally cleared of pipes, piles of cardboard (for mulching), metal siding, scrap wood, rebar and boxes of bits and bobs. Tools were sent back to the tool shed (aka the shipping container), tarps were folded and stored, tractor chains were hung, wires were rolled up, floors were swept and the workbench was assembled.

Can we play ball NOW?

M also set up the solar shower v2. V1 used a metal barrel which ended up rusting out, so v2 is a dark grey plastic rain barrel. The barrel sits on top of the shipping container and gets the southern sun all day. We use a garden watering wand for our shower head. A section of a wood pallet and some doug fir rounds on top of some pea gravel make up the floor. A debarked tree limb makes a handy towel rack and helps to keep the shower curtain rod upright.


No mowing or plumbing or backfilling – but the barn looks great and it will be nice to have use of the solar shower again, especially since the hot water heater in the camp trailer is on the fritz.

Posted in Barn, Construction | 4 Comments

Blooms and Spring Foraging

Frequent walkabouts help us keep track of what is going on at the farm. Spring’s showy flowers are always a hit but also an easy way to identify natives and local residents. Each time we identify something new (to us) I try and keep a mental inventory of two things. 1. What is the plant useful to us or to wildlife for, and 2. What might it indicate in the soils. Some of these fellows we want to cultivate or at least encourage. Some we just look forward to seeing each year.


Pacific Bleeding Heart – Dicentra Formosa

Bleeding heart often grows in the vicinity of a spring, but doesn’t like to be in the wet all the time. This patch we found just downhill and to the side of a seasonal spring that recently dried out until the wet season is back upon us. We’ve seen patches in other places and now I seem to put it all together that seasonal springs and surface waterflows are always nearby.


Bitter Cherry – Prunus emarginata

Bitter cherry is a great wildlife food and not really for humans. This tree preforms well in wetter areas can be used for lumber, and the bark is rot resistant and used for basket weaving. The dried bark is an amazing fire starter. The few trees we had fall were initially difficult to split for firewood, until I was taught the trick of zipping both sides of a log’s bark with my chainsaw. The outer bark runs horizontally and the inner vertically making it a tight package. There are quite a few of these guys on the farm, and I have been eyeballing the few large leaners for lumber when we build the house. Flooring and cabinetry come to mind. As with all cherry there is a quantity of cyanide compounds in the bark and fruit stones that need to be kept out of the way of any browsing livestock. The wild bids love them and we like the birds to keep the bugs to a minimum and give us back little phosphorus packages in the mix. (poo.)


Service Berry – Amelanchier ??

Service berry is new to me. I only properly identified it this week. This one is human edible and quite sweet. It is drought tolerant, works well in the wet and in dry positions. (These were found in wet). These seem like great native additions for the chicken paddocks and also for steep hillsides like our curtain drain. Interestingly this guy will get 20ft high or more and the wood is great for tool handles.


Native Elderberry – Sambucus racemosa

Our native elderberry has beautiful red clusters of fruit which are edible if you cook them. The birds here get first picking and we’ll probably leave it to them. They are a showy and pleasant addition to the forest edge.


Siberian Lettuce – Claytonia sibirica

One of my favorites. New leaves are a tasty addition to salads or wilted greens. These were so tender I harvested them with scissors. In the summer the leaves can get bitter, so new growth or spring harvest makes for a delicious addition to a meal. These prefer shaded areas with plenty of moisture. They are a fantastic understory plant.


We ate this batch for breakfast with some leftover polenta, fried eggs, our home cured bacon, and L’s recent batch of wholegrain sourdough English muffins (or as the Brits in the office call them muffins”

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Pickled Eggs and Deer Mulch

Daylight. Sweet, sweet daylight. My mornings start pretty early and by the time I am ready to catch the bus to work at 5:00 AM the sky is just turning purple and maroon. I feel a physical relief with that little bit of light in the morning now. On the rare morning when I have time to get a run in at home (cardio and core my friends… I really believe that this has made a huge difference in my farm work) I get to see the sun actually rise. 40 minutes to spare is a real luxury and with the light it really changes my outlook.


My running buddy wondering why I stopped

The hens must feel the same as we are rolling in eggs! L. has been making frittatas and quiche, and our all-time favorite, wilted kale, polenta, bacon and two poached eggs. But my little joy this time of year is pickling our surplus eggs. This is a Southern thing I think, but spicy pickled eggs are a real treat. They really hit the spot especially with a little beer.

I did make the mistake of bringing in some to work for a co-worker to try. Not only did I not screw the lid on tight enough and spill pickled egg juice liberally in my bag but when I put the jar on my desk I got a lot of interesting reactions. :-)


L. will post the recipe later – she is en route to the farm now and picking up pallet shelving to help us organize the barn. She’s also submitting paperwork for septic designs and water permits. More on that in another post.

Here is the “proper” way to eat pickled eggs.

In other news, we have caged most of the trees and got a bunch of raspberry plants in the ground. When we showed up last weekend we discovered how much deer love young raspberry plants. Munched to the ground. Boo. Since we have a lot of sheet metal siding scrap left over from barn construction and it needs to move anyway in preparation for more construction we decided to “mulch” the raspberries with it almost 3ft out from the plants. Our hope is that when the deer come for a snack and step on it the “clonk-clonking” will deter them. We’ll see.

Tree cages seem to be holding up well. L. found a freecycle listing for rebar and grabbed it all. These worked pretty well for supports.


You can see some scraps of cardboard from our mulch scattered about. Some critter (not the dog) is having a good time digging into it and flinging it about. This seems to have relented in the last few weeks though.

Posted in Crops, Farming, Gardening, Mulch, Tree Care, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , | 8 Comments

The Chicken Food Forest

As part of our Grand Plan permaculture design, each function of the farm will be as close to a self-sustaining system as we can reasonably muster, and this includes our laying flock. We want to create a chicken-centric woodland filled with foods they love. The idea was inspired by the chapter on chickens in Bill Mollison’s Introduction to Permaculture.

Food forests mimic woodlands in that plants are grouped together in mutually beneficial and sustainable relationships where plants share nutrients, provide mulch, attract beneficial insects, etc… as well as provide a wide variety of food (fruit, seeds, nuts, herbs, berries, vegetables, etc…) for animals and humans.

In our Chicken Food Forest the birds will literally eat the “low hanging fruit”. We would harvest the rest for them or if there’s an abundance – share it with other livestock and/or eat it ourselves.  The more of their food we can grow on the farm the less, if any, feed we will have to buy in. We also plan to grow grains so we hopefully won’t have to buy feed at all.

Zone 1

Zone 1 from our permaculture farm design prepared before the barn was built. The Chicken Food Forest is to the right of the barn. This drawing is not to scale and the details are a little bit different than depicted here, but it gives you an idea of what we are envisioning.


We staked out four paddocks that are roughly  1300 sf each and have planted the black locusts that will run along the fence lines eventually becoming living fence posts. The chickens will move through one paddock at a time allowing for the plantings to recover and regrow just like in a pasture rotation system. The laying flock will be housed in a coop adjacent to the greenhouse which is attached to the barn. There will be a fairly large strawyard as well as a covered area just outside the coop entrance with a series of gates accessing each paddock.


The perimeter fencing will be woven wire field fencing with posts made from the cedar we recently had taken down at home. By the time these cedar posts have served their time, the black locusts we have planted all along the proposed fence lines will be in place to take over fence post duty. We will keep the black locusts pollarded in the meantime, using the prunings as chop and drop mulch. Since we have so many trees in a limited area, pollarding will help keep them at a manageable height.

At the bottom of the field fencing we will run a two foot section of hardware cloth or chicken wire to keep the baby chicks from getting out and two strands of hot wire will be added to keep predators out. The interior fencing won’t have to be as secure as the perimeter, so will be either be leftover field fencing or chicken wire – just high enough to keep the chickens from getting into the other paddocks.


In addition to the black locusts planted along the fence lines, we will plant fruiting trees, vines and shrubs, herbaceous plants and ground covers that chickens like to eat. Comfrey, grapes, amaranth, rye grass, flax, currants, raspberries, clovers, figs, mulberry, chickweed, oats, millet, sunflowers, etc…. We  will double up the fencing in between the paddocks to create a narrow corridor so that some of the plantings (i.e. grapes that will run along the fencing) will be better protected from the chicken’s scratching.  Other ways to protect plantings from too much damage is to place stones, bricks, etc… at the base of plants that might suffer from the scratching about by the chickens.

This golden hops plant next to the coop has survived the chicken scratching for three years now.

The trees and shrubs will also provide the chickens with protection from raptors and summer heat.

My weeping mulberries aren’t this big yet but pretty soon they will provide a great shelter for the chickens. (photo courtesy of

We may run something over the top of the paddocks to help with this until the tree canopy is large enough to do the job. I’m thinking something fun along the lines of a may pole.

(photo courtesy of


Although they provide us with delicious and nutritious eggs for which we are extremely grateful for, the chickens will still need to earn their keep in exchange for living in this paradise.  In the paddocks not currently in use we will build compost piles so that when the birds move back in the piles will be chock full of worms, pill bugs, cutworms, etc… ready for the chickens to employ their shredding and mixing abilities as well as adding in fresh nitrogen deposits.

The Chicken Food Forest is adjacent to [what will be] the main Greenhouse and the Kitchen Garden. In early spring and late fall we will let them free range through the greenhouse and the gardens to till the cover crops in, manage pests and apply fertilizer.


I read on The Walden Effect that he rotates his birds on pasture every 28 days through four paddocks and allows about 270 square feet per bird. He also says if you are running your birds through the paddocks year round, which we will do, you would need six paddocks. The difference is he’s talking about pasture and broilers and he’s located in Virginia. I’m talking about a densely planted food forest in a more temperate climate (no harsh winter) and a laying flock.

I am thinking about the rotation schedule before I plant so I will know [roughly] which paddock they would be in at any give time in an attempt to make sure the fruits are ripe when they are in a particular paddock or it’s the warmest/driest during the winter, etc….

I started out playing around with a monthly rotation schedule which gives each paddock a 16 week recovery period but I’m already doubting it’s effectiveness as I look out my window at our little flock of 12 birds and how quickly they rip stuff up.

Paddock 1 – January, May, September
Paddock 2 – February, June, October
Paddock 3 – March, July, November
Paddock 4 – April, August, December

As an example of my thought process – the mulberries I am planning to plant in paddocks 1 and 4 start to fruit here in mid to late August, so the birds will have access to the ripe fruit when they are moved into those paddocks. Paddocks 1 and 2 are south-facing and therefore warmer in the winter which is where they will be during the coldest months.  Paddocks 3 and 4 are shaded from the hot western sun by the barn when they are in there during the hotter months. I’m sure I won’t be able to work everything out perfectly, but a little bit of planning should help to make these birds pretty self-sufficient.

If I go with a bi-monthly rotation it won’t work quite as well with them being in the warmer paddocks during the coldest months, but the plants will probably be a whole lot better off. Each paddock would have an 8 week recovery period.

Paddock 1 – early January, March, May, July, September, November
Paddock 2 – late January, March, May, July, September, November
Paddock 3 – early February, April, June, August, October, December
Paddock 4 – late February, April, June, August, October, December

I’m hoping I can run 30 – 40 birds through this system. I may have to eat those words later, but we won’t be starting out with 40 birds from the get go. It is an experiment that we will monitor as we go along and make adjustments as needed. There is room to add a fifth paddock if needed and we have a few more permaculture tricks up our sleeve so read on…

Keeping the Chickens Employed

If we need to take pressure off of the Chicken Food Forest should we reach our maximum capacity and want to expand our flock, or should we have a lot of older layers needing gainful employment as something other than bone broth, we’ve come across a couple of unique “tractoring” systems we want to try out.

As we break new ground for “people” food forests or convert pasture to broad acre crops, etc…, we will use a small flock of birds (around 10-12 I’d imagine) to help prepare the land. Using an egg mobile and some electronet fencing, the chickens will be moved through an area a section at a time to scratch up the sod, clean out the bugs and fertilize the soil. Geoff Lawton demonstrates this system in his Designing a Food Forest with Chickens video.

After a broad acre garden area is planted out and in full production, the chickens can be moved about in the general vicinity turning kitchen scraps and garden waste into compost to mulch the beds with – another great idea and video (also from my permaculture hero Geoff Lawton) demonstrates how this works. I really love this and think it would be a great job for older hens who are slowing down their egg production – assuming we have all of the bone broth and chicken & dumplings makings we need in the freezer. We do plan on having our flock hatch out chicks so we expect to have a fair number of roosters to meet those needs.

I highly recommend signing up for the Geoff Lawton videos to see the full videos – well worth it and I promise there is no spam, plus you’ll have access to many more free videos he’s produced. They are all quite brilliant.

I’ve been bugging M about making me a chicken taxi so I can easily move my hens about our property at home. Since it is so heavily wooded and sloped, it is hard for me to move the poultrynet around while still giving them access to their coop. Through Sailors Small Farm, I heard about Eliot Coleman’s Chickshaw – which is exactly what I envisioned my chicken taxi to be. We can easily deploy chickens or ducks to any area of the farm that would benefit from their attention.

You say chickshaw and I say chicken taxi… (photo courtesy of

This post is all about our laying flock. We plan to also raise meat birds and tractor them in the lanes between our fruit and nut trees – but most of you are already familiar with that concept.

It’s all theory at this point, so I am humbly soliciting feedback from all chicken-keepers out there. Thanks!

Posted in Chickens, Compost, Farming, Gardening, Homesteading, Permaculture, Preparing the land, Sustainability | Tagged , , , , | 13 Comments